Memory-Steel for Smart Steel Structures: A Review on Recent Developments and Applications
This study reviews the recent works on the development and application of iron based shape memory alloy (Fe-SMA), the so-called memory-steel, for steel structures. First, the studies on the material properties of Fe-SMA in terms of shape memory effect and superelasticity are discussed. Next, the use of Fe-SMA in prestressed strengthening of steel structures is explained, including the applications in strengthening of steel girders, connections, and fatigue crack repairs. Various strengthening solutions such as using mechanically anchored or adhesively-bonded Fe-SMA, as well as the studies on the behavior of the Fe-SMA-to-steel bonded joints, are discussed. The use and application of Fe-SMA for strengthening of a 113-years steel bridge has been explained. In addition, studies on the innovative application of the Fe-SMA as pipe couplers are presented. At the end, innovative ongoing research on the additive manufacturing of Fe-SMA (4D printing) are discussed.