Integrating a Wind Farm into a Transmission or Distribution System

Author(s) J. Smith, M. Hadingham
CIGRE 7th Regional Conference, 7-11 October 2013 in Cape Town


With South Africa implementing a Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Program (REIPPP) there has been keen interest in Independent Power Producers, IPPs. A large numbers of these IPPs are Wind Energy Facilities (WEF) [1]. Integrating a WEF into a Transmission or Distribution network not only requires good engineering practices but also conformance to the NERSA Grid Connection code. This paper considers some of the requirements of the Grid Connection code. Poorly integrated WEF can degrade the quality of supply in the network to which they are connected resulting in inconvenience to existing customers and an embarrassment to the utility. To prevent this happening, a Grid Connection Code for Renewable Power Plants (RPPs) Connected to the Electricity Transmission System(TS) or the Distribution System(DS) in South Africa (hereafter referred to as SAGCRPP) has been developed which recognises this fact and requires a detailed analysis of the situation and a careful appraisal of possible connections [2]. This grid connection code clearly states the conditions to which every WEF should adhere. This paper relates to WEFs which utilise fully rated converter coupled wind turbine generators (WTG) and covers ride through large frequency deviations, system faults and the capability of the WEF to conform to the SAGCRPP under various voltage, active power and  reactive power conditions. The paper is intended to assist utility engineers, developers of new WEFs as well as Engineers involved in the design of the WEF.